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INFLUENCE OF THRIVING AND JOB SATISFACTION ON TURN OVER INTENTION: MEDIATING ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION
Hafeez, M Moosa Ismaa
International Journal of Information, Business and Management
Vol. 11, Iss. 3,
(Aug 2019): 1-8.
In current scenario, every organization wants to get over competitors. Every organization wants to thrive and get edge over competitors. Data were collected from 2 banks and 2 schools, 106 respondents took part in survey. In current study, we examined positive effect of thriving on job satisfaction and negative relation with turn over intention. All results are significant. Thriving has negative effect on turnover intention and positive effect on job satisfication.Job satisfaction mediates the effect on thriving and turnover intention.
Key words: Thriving, job satisfaction and turn over intention.
In current cooperate world, there are lot of factors which determine the performance of an employee. Oragnizations seek the factors to compete in the organization. Now a days most important problem organizations face, employee is willing to get better chance to move and the turn over intention of an employee, If employee wants to move from organization to avail better opprountunity, he will not be goal oriented.
According to (Porath, Spreitzer, Gibson, & Garnett, 2012) Thriving is defined “as the psychological state in which individuals experience both a sense of vitality and learning.”
According to (Qingguo Zhai, Saifang Wang, 2017) supervisor and coworker support mediated by thriving increases job satisfaction of an employee. If employee thrives at work place, it means he is ready to learn more and is energetic about his work. Thriving has many antecedents which enables employee to thrive. Thrives employee reduces turnover intention (Abid et al. 2016).Thriving mediates the effect of LMX outcomes affective commitment and job performance (“Jie LI,” 2015). Thriving associates with behavioral outcomes (Mushtaq, Abid, Sarwar, & Ahmed, 2017) thriving is the most discussed phenomena in current scenario, every organization which wants to excel in the cooperate world tries to achieve the level where his employees thrive. Scholarly interest has been increasing in thriving at workplace (Abid and Ahmed, 2016).
Job satisfaction is how an employee feels during his work (Salem et al. 2010).Job satisfaction is basically analyze after complete study of job attributes (Brayfield & Rothe, 1951).job satisfaction can be measured by different ways like job involvement, job commitment, work engagement etc. Job satisfaction means how employee takes his job .if employee is satisfied, he enjoys work. Employee empowerment leads to job satisfaction as well and improve his mental health (Spreitzer, G.M. 1996). job satisfaction is need of time, satisfied employee gives his/her full input to achieve the goal of an organization. Supervisor support and coworker support also stick employee to organization,commited employee is satisfied employee and there are many factors which effects the satisfaction level of an employee(Tepper et al., 2004).Leader or boss attitudes effect employee level of satisfaction (Hidayat, 2016). Satisfaction means how much you are willing to input in your work.
Turn over Intention
Turn over Intention means employee willingness to leave the job, there can be many factors which can effect employee thinking to quite the job(working condition,co worker support, supervisor support etc).Turn over Intention can be influenced by many factors (Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, 2006;Tett, R. P., & Meyer, 1993).In last decades (2001-2009) companies downsize their employees ,which increases the job insecurity among employees and increases turnover intention for better and handsome outcomes(Mgedezi, SiphoRaymond Toga, 2014).According to (Abid, Zahra, et al., 2016)supportive environment reduces the turnover intention of an employee,If employee thrives at workplace he feels energetic and he tries to give his maximum input. Work mindfulness decreases the employee turnover intention(Dane & Brummel, 2013).Turn over intention decreases by supportive ethical leadership approach(Akdogan A. Asuman, 2015).
The purpose of this research is to see the effect of thriving on turn over intension, if employee thrives it reduces the turn over intention of an employee and it increases the job satisfaction of employee.
In previous researches we see the relationship of thriving with turnover and job satisfaction(Abid, Zahra, et al., 2016),(Zopiatis, Constanti, & Theocharous, 2014),(Tzeng, 2002),(Porath et al., 2012).Relationship between these three articles have not been seen before. Job satisfaction mediates the effect of thriving and turnover intention.
In this research we are going to see how the thriving effects the employee job satisfaction and turn over intention. The organizations in Pakistan are not worked too much on these three variables collectively.
Thriving and turnover Intention
If employee is thrive at work place ,he learns more and feel more energetic during his work. If an employee feels alert and energetic at his work place he reduces his intention to leave the organization(Shihong et al., 2018).
Hypothesis 1: Thriving is negatively related to Turnover Intention Thriving and Job satisfaction
If an employee thrives at work place ,it increases his level of job satisfication.Satisfied employee enjoys his job and learns more. If an employee does not satisfied with his job ,he gets tired from what he does ,satisfied employees enjoys his work. Sometimes employees needs to be feel energetic(Mushtaq et al., 2017).
Hypothesis2:Thriving is positively related to job satisfaction.
Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
Job satisfaction motivates employee to keep carry on the current organization((Sukriket, 2014 ;Huei-ling liu, 2018;Sector & Zaraket, 2017; Knapp, Smith, & Sprinkle, 2017),job satisfaction effects turnover intention. Thriving have a negative relation with turnover intention.
Hypothesis3: job satisfaction negatively effect turnover intention Job satisfaction mediating the effect on thriving and turnover intention.
Thriving at work
Ten items scale was used to measure thriving at work developed by ((Porath et al., 2012)on five point Likert scale ranging from (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree).The sample item of learning is “I continue to learn more and more as time goes by” and for vitality dimension “I feel alive and vital”.
Three items scale was adapted to measure job satisfaction(Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D., & Klesh, 1979).on five Likert scale,it ranging from (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree).All in all, I do not like my job,2;iam satisfied with my job.
The three items scale were used to measure the turnover intention by(Mitchell, T.R., Holtom, B.C., Lee, T.W., Sablynski, C.J.,&Erez, 2001).These items ranging from (1=strongly disagree to 2=strongly agree).The sample items are 1; I think a lot about leaving the organization.2: As soon as possible, I will leave the organization.
All data were collected through convenient sampling. 150 questionnaire distributed but only 106 responses were received.
Data was collected from private sector. All data was collected from Lahore ,Punjab,Pakistan,south Asia. All data was collected from 2 banks and 2 schools.
Pilot study was conducted,15 questionnaire were distributed to see the problems, if anyone will face. This study is not conducted to check the hypothesis, just to see which hurdle one can face while filling the questionnaire.
Data Analysis and Interpretations
Table 1 provides bivariate correlations among all study variables. The correlations coefficients are in the anticipated directions and provide initial support for the study hypotheses. Consistent with our hypotheses, the bivariate correlations indicate that thriving at work is negatively associated with turnover intention( r =-.219Ã‚Â·, P> 0.05),Thriving is positively associated with job satisfaction ( r = .701Ã‚Â·Ã‚Â·., P > 0.01),turn over intention is negatively associated with job satisfaction ( r =- 0.381Ã‚Â·Ã‚Â·, P > 0.01).
We used Andrew Hayes spss (version 24) for analysis. Regression analysis run to know the impact of thriving on job satisfaction (B=.5648,t=9.9700,t=9.9700,LLCI=.4525,ULCI=.6722).In second model we see job satisfaction is effecting negatively turn over intention(B=-.4666,t=-3.4923,t=-3.4923).These results shows our two hypotheses(H2 ,H3)are acceptable.
(B=.5648,se= .1077,t=7383,LLCI=-.1341,ULCI=.2931)In third model we see thriving is not effecting turnover intention negatively.Our third hypothesis (H1)is not acceptable, as we saw in past, thriving effecting turnover intention negatively but in current study we see they do not have the same effect.
In this study we see the results that thriving directly effects job satisfaction if employee is satisfied he thrives more. Simultanously, job satisfaction effects turnover Intention of an employee. Thriving have a insignificant effect upon turnover intention. Job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover intention (Mcinerney, Korpershoek, Wang, & Morin, 2018). Thriving at workplace is very important, effects the overall performance of an employee (Walumbwa, Muchiri, Misati, Wu, & Meiliani, 2017). In this study, we explore the relationship of thriving.(Abid, Zahra, et al., 2016). Thriving has a positive effect on job satisfaction (Abid, Khan and Michelle Chia-Wei Hong, 2017). which means people are more energetic and gives more output ,if they enjoy work. Job satisfaction reduces the effect of intention to quite, and our study supports it(Sukriket, 2014). In previous studies (Shihong et al., 2018) used to say that thriving has a positive effect on turn over intention ,but our study contradict it, this study shows that thriving is not reducing the effect of turn over intention, it means there are many other confounding variables or factors which effect turn over intention. This study shows the partial full mediatation.
There are many limitation for future study. Firstly sample size is very small, if we increase the sample size results would be much better.secondly,we collected the data only from private sector, data can be collected from public sector as well.Lastly,we can consider more variables for better understanding. There are many confounding and some important variables which effects and need to study.
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